College Basketball in 2013

Tue, Apr 9, 2013 12:51 PM
I am a huge sports fan. I particularly love college sports. We don't have any pro sports teams in Alabama. So, we take our college sports very seriously. Like many sports fans I have watched the NCAA tournament this year. I have to say, if the current trend continues, I don't think I will in the future. I don't like the product.

In particular, I pretty much hate the way Louisville plays basketball. Yes, the won. Kudos to them. I don't blame them really. No, the real problem is the lack of offensive foul calls. Players push and shove each other. Guys going up for a lay up from under the back board are free to bully their way up to the rim including jumping backwards into a well placed defender. The only thing that matters to the NCAA is scoring, at any cost.

Luke Hancock stealing the game from Witchita State by fouling although it was called a jump ball. / Jaime Green/MCT via
So, getting back to Louisville, Rick Petino and his players have figured out just how far they can push these limits. They are almost playing hockey. But, in basketball, there is no penalty box. You get 5 fouls. If you have a deep bench like Petino, you just plug in another guy and they keep fouling. On the other side you have Luke Hancock, named MVP of the Final Four (geez, talk about bad role models) throwing a pump fake and then leaning into a player in a direction that is not toward the basket or any kind of natural shooting motion, just to draw the foul. Those should be no calls or offensive fouls, IMO.

I coach youth basketball. I teach my kids to not foul. I teach my kids to not touch each other when at all possible. On defense, they need to be in position and ready to move their feet. On offense, don't try and run over people. If you have to foul to stop someone, then we need a better game plan. Or maybe they are just better than we are. I have on occasion praised a kid for being aggressive which led to a foul. These are eight year olds. And some of them are still in a shell about being athletic. But, I never say "foul him". And I never have my kid try and draw a foul the way Luke Hancock does. That is just dirty basketball. I will tell my kids to drive the lane and go for the goal. And "if" you get fouled it's OK. But, never go looking for the foul.

Contrastingly, I watched some of the New York Knicks vs. Oklahoma City Thunder game Sunday. These guys hardly ever touch each other. They play within, what I believe, are the real rules of basketball. The game is a little fast and there is a lot of one on one play that can be tedious. But, it was more fun to watch than NCAA basketball. Maybe all the good basketball players go to the NBA and we are left with scrubs in the NCAA. They are too small (size wise) or to slow to play corner back in football so they end up playing basketball as an "athlete". I hope something is done about this. The game is just getting trashy.

The Web We Lost

Tue, Mar 19, 2013 08:34 PM
I was reading Chris Shiflett's blog and he mentioned a blog post about the web the way it used to be before Facebook and Twitter. I almost tweeted it. Then I thought, nah, a good old fashion blog post that linked to it was way better.

The Web We Lost - Anil Dash

The tech industry and its press have treated the rise of billion-scale social networks and ubiquitous smartphone apps as an unadulterated win for regular people, a triumph of usability and empowerment. They seldom talk about what we've lost along the way in this transition, and I find that younger folks may not even know how the web used to be.

It is a good read for all us "old timers". He ironically uses Facebook for comments. One really good one that I can't actually link to afaik because... Facebook said:

No sarcasm here.. I legitimately miss the "web-rings" of old. With niche interests, it was a great way to find like minded sites, and I found many of my still bookmarked favorites with those old crappy left and right arrows :)

Yeah, you know, Web Rings weren't that bad. I had sites on a couple of those things. I think they are still around. And I think you could still pull them off and not worry about Google juice and all that. 302 redirects don't pass that crap. Maybe I should write up some quick javascript that indexs the Planet PHP blogs and adds a Planet PHP web ring to your page. Hmmmm.

Reliable Delivery

Mon, Mar 11, 2013 09:00 AM
There is plenty to read about continuous delivery in terms of rolling out code. In my journey to be a better leader and manager, I have realized there is something we are doing badly. While we are continuously integrating, testing, and deploying code to production, we are not reliably delivering a product for our client. I use client loosely here. The client for the development team at dealnews is the company itself. With every project however, there are people interested in its progress. We were (still are some) underserving those people. Those interested often have no clue of when something will be done. Sometimes things would are done and they do not know it. So, how do we solve this problem?

There was a time when we were a team of two people. If some server issue popped up, it totally derailed whatever project was being worked on. So, we grew accustomed to missing deadlines out of necessity. Now that we are a real team, that excuse is no longer valid.

Part of the problem also lies in the team’s (i.e. me) OSS roots. I really got started doing web development by writing Phorum. In fact, my first job when I was hired full time for, then, was to update the Phorum software to scale better. Banner ads were at an all time high in the late 90s. We made a lot of money off those page views. In OSS, the answer to “When will X be done?” is often “it’s done when it’s done”. Blizzard Entertainment, creators of World of Warcraft, have been quoted as saying that about their products.

Telling someone it will be done when it is done sounds really cool. I feel like a bad ass. It’s art! It’s not about a timeline. I can’t be bothered with your pesky expectations. Except, that is bullshit. In reality, there are people depending on me and my team to get work done. So, that was one of the first things I wanted to change. We have gotten better. Here are some things I have learned.

Think before speaking. If I am in a meeting and talking about a new task or project, I try not to throw out a time frame for completion. I tell them I will get back to them. I try and tell them when I will get back with them. I then gather anyone on the team that needs to have input and evaluate the changes. Once I have a solid answer, I report back to the other department. Very often I worry people will be mad when I say “two weeks” so I say “one week” and hope for a miracle. But if it is going to be two weeks, I need to tell them that. That may be too late. Or it may be not worth it to them to take that much of our time. Of course not all tasks need this kind of time commitment to deciding a time frame. Deciding which do and which don’t is tough sometimes.

I wanted to start communicating deadlines to our developers. We had never had a ticketing system that supported due dates. We had the “done when done” philosophy. I was really worried about adding them. I didn’t want people to feel like they were being micro-managed. After a couple of months, everyone is much happier. Turns out developers really like knowing when things are expected to be done. It also helps to prioritize different tasks. If a developer has 5 things assigned to them, they can look at the due dates to decide which is more important. Because, you know, they are all marked “highest” priority. Developers have the freedom to speak up and say “there is no way I can finish this by that date”. It’s possible I completely misjudged the scale of the change. It is also possible I wrote a horrible ticket and the developer is confused by my 2AM stream of consciousness.

There is another hurdle for me. I have gotten better at managing expectations of other departments and helping developers know what is expected of them. It is better. It is not perfect. It may never be. I am still struggling with doing the same with my own development tasks. I catch myself thinking “Well, that is just how it is when I have to manage and develop.” But that is a total excuse and a cop out. I have to learn to do that better. Managing my own time may be the toughest of all. If and when I figure something out, I will write about it.

Becoming a Better Manager

Sat, Mar 9, 2013 09:02 PM
I have typically blogged on this site about things I have learned in the web
application world that may help others. In the last year or so, I have been
learning a lot of new things. Most of them are not technical in nature however.
You see, I have moved into a role of being a manager. I am a developing manager.
I still write code. And a lot of my time is dedicated to management as well. I
think this has caused me to stop blogging as much. My mind didn't see these
topics as interesting to what I perceive to be the audience of my blog as things
I have blogged about in the past. The problem is, I miss blogging.

So, going forward, there may be some non-technical things on this blog. My hope
is that someone out there finds them as useful as some of my more technical
blogs posts have been.

Developers and Entropy

Fri, Jul 13, 2012 01:07 PM
This is a selfish blog post. I read a great blog post titled "Why You Need To Hire Great Developers" but I could not find it in my browser history or chat history. It talks about entropy creators versus entropy reducers and how bad we are at knowing which one someone is during the hiring process. I wanted to mention it here so my followers could read it and so I could find it again when I was looking for it.

Lock Wait Timeout Errors or Leave Your Data on the Server

Wed, Jun 27, 2012 02:12 AM
If you use MySQL with InnoDB (most everyone) then you will likely see this error at some point. There is some confusion sometimes about what this means. Let me try and explain it.

Let's say we have a connection called A to the database. Connection A tries to update a row. But, it receives a lock wait timeout error. That does not mean that connection A did anything wrong. It means that another connection, call it B, is also updating a row that connection A wants to update. But, connection B has an open transaction that has not been committed yet. So, MySQL won't let you update that row from connection A. Make sense?

The first mistake people may make is looking at the code that throws the error to find a solution. It is hardly ever the code that throws the error that is the problem. In our case, it was code that was doing a simple insert into a table. I had a look at our processing logs around the time that the errors were thrown and I found a job that was running during that time. I then looked for code in that job that updates the table that was locked. This was where the problem lied.

So, why does this happen? Well, there can be very legitimate reasons. There can also be very careless reasons. The genesis of this blog post was some code that appeared to be legitimate at first, but upon further inspection was careless. This is basically what the code did.

  1. Start Transaction on database1
  2. Clear out some old data from the table
  3. Select a bunch of data from database2.table
  4. Loop in PHP, updating each row in its own query to update one column
  5. Select a bunch of data from database2.other_table
  6. Loop in PHP, updating each row in its own query to update another column
  7. Commit database1

This code ran in about 20 minutes on the data set we had. It kept a transaction open the whole time. It appeared legit at first because you can't join the data as there are sums and counts going on that have a one to many relationship which would cause some duplication of the sums and counts. It also looks legit because you are having to pull data from one database into another. However, there is a solution for this. We need to stop pulling all this data into PHP land and let it stay on the server where it lives. So, I changed it to this.

  1. Create temp table on database2 to hold mydata
  2. Select data from database2.table into my temp table
  3. Select data from database2.other_table into my temp table
  4. Move my temp table using extended inserts via PHP from database2 to database1
  5. Start Transaction on database1
  6. Clear out some old data from the table
  7. Do a multi-table bulk update of my real table using the temp table
  8. Commit database1

This runs in 3 minutes and only requires a 90 second transaction lock. Our lock wait timeout on this server is 50 seconds though. However, we have a 3 time retry rule for any lock wait timeout in our DB code. So, this should allow for our current workload to be processed without any data loss.

So, why did this help so much? We are not moving data from MySQL to PHP over and over. This applies to any language, not just PHP. The extended inserts for moving the temp table from one db to another really help. That is the fastest part of the whole thing. It moves about 2 million records from one to the other in about 1.5 seconds.

So, if you see a lock wait timeout, don't think you should sleep longer between retries. And don't dissect the code that is throwing the error. You have to dig in and find what else is running when it happens. Good luck.

Bonus: If you have memory issues in your application code, these techniques can help with those too.

Scaling 101 - We are Failing the Next Generation

Tue, Jun 26, 2012 01:01 AM
The other day Twitter was down and I had no place to comment on Twitter being down. This got us to talking about scaling at work. I was reminded of the recent slides posted from Instagram about their scaling journey. They are great slides. There is only one problem I have with them. They are just the same slides that you would find from 2000 about scaling.

I have to say, I like Instagram. My daughter has something like 1,000 followers on Instagram. And good for them for being bought by Facebook for a bajillion dollars. This is not a dig on them really. This is a dig on our industry. Why did Instagram have to learn the hard way how to scale their app? I want to point out some of their issues and discuss why its silly they had to learn this the hard way.

Single machine somewhere in LA

Why would anyone deploy an app to the app store when the backend is all on one server in this day and age? I am not big poponent of the cloud, but that has to be better than a single server in a rack somewhere. And L.A.? Go for Dallas or somewhere geographically neutral.


So, this is one of the biggest mistakes I see in all of web application developement. People use Apache or Nginx or whatever and have a mod_rewrite command that sends ALL requsets into their appliction stack. They do this because they are lazy. They want to write whatever code they want later and just have the request picked up without any work. At dealnews, we don't do that. We have controllers. But, we specify in our Apache config what paths are routed to those controllers. The most general we have is:

    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} (\/|.html|.php)$
    RewriteRule ^.+$ /torpedo.php/$1 [L]

So, if the request ends with / or .html or .php, send it to the controller. This is the controller our proxy servers use. Any other requests like robots.txt, images, etc. are all served off disk by Apache. No sense having a PHP process handle that. It's crazy. This is not Instagram's fault. They likely followed some examples they found that other developers before them put on the internet. Why are we doing this to people? Is it some rite of passage? I suspect that the problem is actually that 90% of the web does not require any scaling. Only 10% of the sites and services out there have to actually worry about load. So, this never comes up.

So, the next part of their slides basically glorify the scaling process. This is another problem with people in our field. We thrive on the chaos. These are our glory days. Let's face it, most geeks never won the high school football championship. The days when we are faced with a huge scaling challenge are our glory days. I know I have had that problem. And I played sports as a youth. But, nothing is better than my 2006 war story about a Yahoo front page link. Man, I rocked that shit. But, you know what. The fact that I had to struggle through that means I did not do my job. We should have never been facing that issue. It should have just all worked. That is what it does now. It just works. We don't even know when we get a spike now. It just works. The last thing I want in my life now is an unexpected outage that I have to RAGE on to get the site up again. That leaves me feeling like a failure.

Then they realize they are out of the depths. They need to do things they never thought they would need to do. Why not? Why did they not know they would need to do these things? Unexpected growth? Maybe. Why is this not common knowledge though? With all the talk of the cloud being awesome for scaling, why was this not a button on the AWS dashboard that said [SCALE] that you just push? That is what the cloud does right?

In the end, Instagram learned, the hard way again, that you have to build your own architecture to solve your problem. I learned it the hard way. LiveJournal learned it the hard way. Facebook, Twitter, etc. etc. They have all learned the hard way that there is no single solution for massive scale. You have to be prepared to build the architecture that solves your problem in a way that you can manage. But, there are basic building blocks of all scaling that need to be in place. You should never, ever, ever start with an application on a single server that reads and writes directly to the database with no cache in place. Couch, Mongo, blah blah blah. Whatever. They all need cache in front of them to scale. Just build it in from the start.

Instagram was storing images. Why were they surprised when they ran out of room for the images? I just can't fathom that. Its images. They don't compress. You have to put them somewhere. This has to be an education issue. LiveJournal solved this in 2003 with MogileFS and Gearman. Why did they not build their arch on top of that to start with? Poor education, that is why.

One thing they bring up is one that has me bugged is monitoring. There is no good solution for this. Everyone ends up rolling their own solutions using a few different tools. The tools are often the same, but the metrics, and how they are reported and monitored are all different. I think there is a clear need in the industry for some standards in this area.

if you’re tempted to reinvent the wheel ... don't

I did find this slide funny. Reading these slides for me is like seeing them reinvent the whole wheel that is scaling. This has all been done before. Why are they having to learn it the hard way?

don’t over-optimize or expect to know ahead of time how site will scale

I take exception to this slide however. You should have some idea how to scale your app before you deploy it. It is irresponsible and cowboy to deploy and think "oh, we will fix it later". That is true no matter what you are doing. Don't give me the lines about being a start up and all that. It is just irresponsible to deploy something you know won't hold up. For what it is worth, I think these guys really had no clue. And that is because we, as an industry, did not make it known to them what they were up against.

How do we fix this?

Stop comparing stuff you don't understand

Tue, Jun 26, 2012 12:09 AM
I normally don't do this. When I see someone write a blog post I don't agree with, I often just dismiss it and go on. But, this particular one caught my attention. It was titled PHP vs Node.js: Yet Another Versus. The summary was:

Node.js = PHP + Apache + Memcached + Gearman - overhead

What the f**k? Are you kidding me? Clearly this person has NEVER used memcached or Gearman in a production environment that had any actual load.

Back in the day, when URLs and filesystems had a 1:1 mapping, it made perfect sense to have a web server separate from the language it is running. But, nowadays, any PHP app with attractive URLs running behind the Apache web server is going to need a .htaccess file, which tells the server a regular expression to check before serving up a file. Sound complex and awkward with unnecessary overhead? That’s because it is.

Node has a web server built in. Some people call this a bad thing, I call those people crazy. Having the server built in means that you don’t have the awkward .htaccess config thing going on. Every request is understood to go through the same process, without having to hunt through the filesystem and figure out which script to run.
He believes that PHP inside Apache requires a .htaccess file. Welcome to 1999. I have not used a .htaccess file since then. Anyone that cares at all about scaling Apache would disable .htaccess files. And as for running regexs, how does he propose you decide your code path in the controller of his Node.js code? Something somewhere has to decide what code is going to answer a given request. mod_rewrite is wire speed fast and compiled in C. Javascript nor PHP code could ever beat that.

The official website is quite ugly and outdated.
Really? You choose your tools based on that? I don't know what to say.

Since a PHP process starts, does some boilerplate work, performs the taks the user actually wants, and then dies, data is not persistent in memory. You can keep this data persistent using third party tools like Memcache or traditional database, but then there is the overhead of communicating with those external processes.
He clearly has no understanding of how memcached is supposed to be used. You don't put things in Memcached so you can use it on the next request on this server. You put things in memcached so you can use it in any request on any server in your server pool. If you just have one web server, you can write Perl CGI scripts. Performance and up time is not important to you. If you want to share things across requests in PHP, APC and XCache fill the need very well.

The number one bottleneck with web apps is not the time it takes to calculate CPU hungry operations, but rather network I/O. If you need to respond to a client request after making a database call and sending an email, you can perform the two actions and respond when both are complete.
This sums up the mythical magic of Node.js. People think just because your code is not "running" that somehow the server is not doing anything. The process does not get to go do other shit. No, that would be multi-threaded. And Node.js is not multi-threaded. It is single threaded. That means the process can only be doing one thing at a time. If you are waiting on a DB call, you are waiting. I don't care what world you think you live in. You are waiting on that DB call. How your code is structured is irrelevant to how computers actually work. The event driven nature that is Node.js is much like OOP. You are abstracting yourself from how computers really work. The further you get from that, the less you will be able to control the computer.
Node.js is a very new, unstable, untested platform. If you are going to be building a large corporate scale app with a long lifetime, Node.js is not a good solution. The Node API’s are changing almost daily, and large/longterm apps will need to be rewritten often.
So, if I plan on making a living, don't use Node.js. Got it. We finally agree on something.
Being so new, it doesn’t have a lot of baggage leftover from days of old. Having a server built in, the stack is a lot simpler, there are less points of failure, and there is more control over what you can do with HTTP responses (ever try overwriting the name of the web server using PHP?).
No, why would you? It is not the web server. Apache or nginx would be your web server.
  • Are you building some sort of daemon? Use Node.
  • Are you making a content website? Use PHP.
  • Do you want to share data between visitors? Use Node.
  • Are you a beginner looking to make a quick website? Use PHP.
  • Are you going to run a bunch of code in parallel? Use Node.
  • Are you writing software for clients to run on shared hosts? Use PHP.
  • Do you want push events from the server to the client using websockets? Use Node.
  • Does your team already know PHP? Use PHP.
  • Does your team already know frontend JavaScript? Node would be easier to learn.
  • Are you building a command line script? Both work.
Yes, of course you would not build a daemon in PHP. Do you plan to share that same data across servers? He already told us Node is not multi-threaded, so how can it run code in parallel? Websockets have a ton of their own pain to deal with that is not even related to Node vs. PHP. Things like proxies. If I was building a command line tool and wanted to use Javascript, I would just use V8.

Listen, I write code in PHP and JavaScript all day. I also use some Ruby, Lua and even dabble in C. I am not a language snob. Use what works for you. I do however take exception when people write about things they clearly have no idea about. He claims to have written a lot of PHP. He clearly has never deployed a lot of PHP in environments that matter. If you are building small sites that don't have a lot of traffic, you can use anything. If you are building massive sites that have to scale, any technology is going to require a full understanding of what it takes to scale it out. I leave you with this wisdom that I am reminded of by his blog post.

PHP Coding Standards

Fri, May 25, 2012 08:27 PM
Update: Matthew Weier O'Phinney, one of the core members of the group, has cleared up the naming history in the comments.

During the /dev/hell podcast at Tek12, someone asked the guys their opinion about PSR. I did not know what PSR was by that name. A quick search lead me to the Google Group named PHP Standards Working Group. I had vaguely remembered a consortium of frameworks, libraries and applications that were organizing to attempt to make their projects cooperate better. But, this did not sound like the same project. Another search and I found the PHP Framework Interoperability Group on Github. A bit more searching led me to a post where apparently the PHP FIG changed their name at some point citing people not knowing what FIG meant. But, this is not a history post. The group had done some work on setting a standard for auto loaders in PHP. This is a very good thing and much needed. That is a real thing that impacts real developers.

The person asking the question had asked about PSR1 and PSR2. These are the first two standards proposals in the group and they deal with coding standards. There were mixed feelings in the room about the proposals. I asked (being me, probably with very little tact) why in 2012 were a group of really smart people still discussing coding standards such as tabs vs. spaces. Because this is what immediately came to mind for me.


There are already coding standards for PHP and any other language out there. Why does anyone need to make a new one? For Phorum we chose the PEAR standard (ok, with 2 minor modifications). On top of that, every one of the projects in this group already have coding standards. Why not just pick one of those? Are 10 projects that currently have their own standards going to actually all change to something else? I highly doubt it. My guess is that, at best, they will all end up with a modified version of the groups standards.

This reminds me a lot of Open Source licenses. There are tons of these things. And in the end, most (GPL has its issues I know) of the open source licenses represent the same idea. I suppose you could say that most of all of them fall into GPL like or BSD like. Anyhow, I quit worrying about having my own license years ago. I now just use a BSD style license that you can generate with several online BSD license generators.

When I voiced my concern about what is, in my opinion, a waste of very smart people's time, my good friend Cal Evans (He has bled in my car. So, I think he is my friend. And I hope he feels the same.) said that I was misunderstanding the point of the group. It was a group of projects that were collaborating to try and use similar standards and practices to make the PHP OSS community better. And that is exactly what I thought PHP FIG was. However, the group name is now "PHP Standards Working Group". That reminds me of the W3C HTML Working Group. And in my mind that means a group that is deciding the future of a technology. In addition the proposal being discussed is titled "PSR-1, a standard coding convention for PHP". If you pair that with the name of the group, it sounds very authoritative. And I don't think that is by accident. If I was heading up such an effort, I would hope that every PHP developer on the planet would follow it too. If you saw Terry Chay's keynote at the PHP Community Conference last year, he talked about frameworks and platforms. He pointed out that the reason people like Facebook were sharing their data center technology was in hopes that people would start using it and it would become common. Thus meaning the equipment they are custom building would be cheaper and people they hire would already be familiar with it. But, if the point of the group is *only* cooperation between lage OSS PHP projects, I wish they would pick a name that is more indicative of that. As it stands, when I landed on the page, my immediate assumption was that this groups intention was to dictate to the rest of the PHP world how to write their PHP code.

In the end, cooperation is good. And if these guys want to cooperate I say more power to them. I just hope they get into really good things soon. Like, can we talk about a maximum number of files, functions or classes used for any one single page execution? *That* would be valuable to the PHP community. I can deal with funny formatting. I can't deal with poorly performing code that his dragged down in abstracton and extension. Or how about things like *never* running queries inside loops that are reading results from another query. That would be a great thing to make examples of and show people the best practices. Tabs vs. spaces? That should have been solved 10 years ago. When in doubt, PHP code should do what the PHP core does. This is PHP we are talking about. Would it not make sense to have the people who write PHP writing code that is somewhat similar in style to those that make PHP? C and PHP syntax are very, very similar. So, why don't we all just refer to the PHP CODING_STANDARDS file when in doubt and not even worry with the little stuff that does not affect performance?

So, as of a few minutes ago, I have joined the group. If for no other reason, just to see what is discussed. Perhaps I should follow the advice I give people when they ask for features in my projects and do something about my issues and worries.

Living in the Prove It Culture

Tue, Mar 6, 2012 11:45 PM
Engineering cultures differ from shop to shop. I have been in the same culture for 13 years so I am not an expert on what all the different types are. Before that I was living in Dilbert world. The culture there was really weird. The ideas were never yours. It was always some need some way off person had. A DBA, a UI "expert" and some product manager would dictate what code you wrote. Creativity was stifled and met with resistance.

I then moved to the early (1998) days of the web. It was a start up environment. In the beginning there were just two of us writing code. So, we thought everything we did was awesome. Then we added some more guys. Lucky for us we mostly hired well. The good hires where type A personalities that had skills we didn't have. They challenged us and we challenged them. On top of that, we had a CEO who had been a computer hacker in his teens. So, he had just enough knowledge to challenge us as well. Over the years we kept hiring more and more people. We always asked in the interview if the person could take criticism and if they felt comfortable defending their ideas. We decided to always have a white board session. We would ask them questions and have them work it out on a white board or talk it out with us in a group setting. The point of this was not to see if they always knew the answer. The point was to see how they worked in that setting. Looking back, the hires that did not work out also did not excel in that phase of the interview. The ones that have worked out always questioned our methods in the interview. They did not belittle our methods or dismiss them. They just asked questions. They would ask if we had tried this or that. Even if we could quickly explain why our method was right for us, they still questioned it. They challenged us.

When dealing with people outside the engineering team, we subconsciously applied these same tactics. The philosophy came to be that if you came to us with an idea, you had to throw it up on the proverbial wall. We would then try to knock it down. If it stuck, it was probably a good idea. Some people could handle this and some could not. The ones that could not handle that did not always get their ideas pushed through. It may not mean they were bad ideas. And that is maybe the down side of this culture. But, it has worked pretty well for us.

We apply this to technology too. My first experience on Linux was with RedHat. The mail agent I cut my teeth on was qmail. I used djbdns. When Daniel Beckham, our now director of operations, came on, he had used sendmail and bind. He immediately challenged qmail. I went through some of the reasons I prefered it. He took more shots. In the end, he agreed that qmail was better than sendmail. However, his first DNS setup for us was bind. It took a few more years of bind hell for him to come around to djbdns.

When RedHat splintered into RedHat Enterprise and Fedora, we tried out Fedora on one server. We found it to be horribly unstable. It got the axe. We looked around for other distros. We found a not very well known distro that was known as the ricer distro of the Linux world called Gentoo. We installed it on one server to see what it was all about. I don't remember now whose idea it was. Probably not mine. We eventually found it to be the perfect distro for us. It let us compile our core tools like Apache, PHP and MySQL while at the same time using a package system. We never trusted RPMs for those things on RedHat. Sure, bringing a server online took longer but it was so worth it. Eventually we bought in and it is now the only distro in use here.

We have done this over and over and over. From the fact that we all use Macs now thanks to Daniel and his willingness to try it out at our CEO's prodding to things like memcached, Gearman, etc. We even keep evaluating the tools we already have. When we decided to write our own proxy we discounted everything we knew and evaluated all the options. In the end, Apache was known and good at handling web requests and PHP could do all we needed in a timely, sane manner. But, we looked at and tested everything we could think of. Apache/PHP had to prove itself again.

Now, you might think that a culture of skepticism like this would lead to new employees having a hard time getting any traction. Quite the opposite. Because we hire people that fit the culture, they can have a near immediate impact. We have a problem I want solved and a developer that has been here less than a year suggested that Hadoop may be a solution, but was not sure we would use it. I recently sent this in an email to the whole team in response to that.
The only thing that is *never* on the table is using a Windows server. If you can get me unique visitors for an arbitrary date range in milliseconds and it require Hadoop, go for it.
You see, we don't currently use Hadoop here. But, if that is what it takes to solve my problem and you can prove it and it will work, we will use it.

Recently we had a newish team member suggest we use a SAN for our development servers to use as a data store. Specifically he suggested we could use it to house our MySQL data for our development servers. We told him he was insane. SANs are magical boxes of pain. He kept pushing. He got Dell to come in and give us a test unit. Turns out it is amazing. We can have a hot copy of our production database on our dev slices in about 3 minutes. A full, complete copy of our production database in 3 minutes. Do you know how amazing that is? Had we not had the culture we do and had not hired the right person that was smart enough to pull it off and confident enough to fight for the solution, we would not have that. He has been here less than a year and has had a huge impact to our productivity. There is talk of using this in production too. I am still in the "prove it" mode on this. We will see.
I know you will ask how our dev db works, here you go:
1. Replicate production over VPN to home office
2. Write MySQL data on SAN
3. Stop replication, flush tables, snapshot FS
4. Copy snapshot to a new location
5. On second dev server, umount SAN, mount new snapshot
6. Restart MySQL all around
7. Talk in dev chat how bad ass that is

We had a similar thing happen with our phone system. We had hired a web developer that previously worked for a company that created custom Asterisk solutions. When our propietary PBX died, he stepped up and proved that Asterisk would work for us. Not a job for a web developer. But he was confident he could make it work. It now supports 3 offices and several home bound users world wide. He also had only been here a short time when that happened.

Perhaps it sounds like a contradiction. It may sound like we just hop on any bandwagon technology out there. But no. We still use MySQL. We are still on 5.0 in fact. It works. We are evaluating Percona 5.5 now. We tried MySQL 5.1. We found no advantage and the Gentoo package maintainer found it to be buggy. So, we did not switch. We still use Apache. It works. Damn well. We do use Apache with the worker MPM with PHP which is supposedly bad. But, it works great for us. But, we had to prove it would work. We ran a single node with worker for months before trusting it. Gearman was begrudgingly accepted. The idea of daemonized PHP code was not a comforting one. But once you write a worker and use it, you feel like a god. And then you see the power. Next thing you know, it is a core, mission critical part of your infrastructure. That is how it is with us now. In fact, Gearman has went from untrusted to the go to tech. When someone proposes a solution that does not involve Gearman, someone will ask if part of the problem can be solved using Gearman and not whatever idea they have. There is then a discussion about why it is or is not a good fit. Likewise, if you want to a build a daemon to listen on a port and answer requests, the question is "Why can't you just use Apache and a web service?" And it is a valid question. If you can solve your problem with a web service on already proven tech, why build something new?

This culture is not new. We are not unique. But, in a world of "brogramming" where "engineers" rage on code that is awesome before it is even working and people are said to be "killing it" all the time, I am glad I live in a world where I have to prove myself everyday. I am the most senior engineer on the team. And even still I get shot down. I often pitch an idea in dev chat and someone will shoot it down or point out an obvious flaw. Anyone, and I mean anyone, on the team can question my code, ideas or decisions and I will listen to them and consider their opinion. Heck, people outside the team can question me too. And regularly do. And that is fine. I don't mind the questions. I once wrote here that I like to be made to feel dumb. It is how I get smarter. I have met people that thought they were smarter than everyone else. They were annoying. I have interviewed them. It is hard to even get through those interviews.

Is it for everyone? Probably not. It works for us. And it has gotten us this far. You can't get comfortable though. If you do foster this type of culture, there is a risk of getting comfortable. If you start thinking you have solved all the hard problems, you will look up one day and realize that you are suffering. Keep pushing forward and questioning your past decisions. But before you adopt the latest and greatest new idea, prove that the decisions your team makes are the right ones at every step. Sometimes that will take a five minute discussion and sometimes it will take a month of testing. And other times, everyone in the room will look at something and think "Wow that is so obvious how did we not see it?" When it works, it is an awesome world to live in.